Universe de Jackpot

Two major developments have bolstered scientists' confidence that the answers lie within their grasp. The first is the enormous progress made in cosmology — the study of the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe. Observations made using satellites, the Hubble Space Telescope, and sophisticated ground-based instruments have combined to transform our view of the universe and the place of human beings within it.

The second development is the growing understanding of the microscopic world within the atom — the subject known as high-energy particle physics. It is mostly carried out with giant particle accelerator machines what were once called "atom smashers" of the sort found at Fermilab near Chicago and the CERN Laboratory just outside Geneva.

Combining these two subjects — the science of the very large and the science of the very small — provides tantalizing clues that deep and previously unsuspected linkages bind the micro-world to the macro-world. Cosmologists are fond of saying that the big bang, which gave birth to the universe billions of years ago, was the greatest ever particle physics experiment.

These spectacular advances hint at a much grander synthesis: nothing less than a complete and unified description of nature, a final "theory of everything" in which a flawless account of the entire physical world is encompassed within a single explanatory scheme.

The Universe Is Bio-Friendly One of the most significant facts — arguably the most significant fact — about the universe is that we are part of it. I should say right at the outset that a great many scientists and philosophers fervently disagree with this statement: that is, they do not think that either life or consciousness is even remotely significant in the great cosmic scheme of things.

My position, however, is that I take life and mind that is, consciousness seriously, for reasons I shall explain in due course. At first sight life seems to be irrelevant to the subject of cosmology.

To be sure, the surface of the Earth has been modified by life, but in the grand sweep of the cosmos our planet is but an infinitesimal dot. There is an indirect sense, however, in which the existence of life in the universe is an important cosmological fact.

For life to emerge, and then to evolve into conscious beings like ourselves, certain conditions have to be satisfied. Among the many prerequisites for life — at least, for life as we know it — is a good supply of the various chemical elements needed to make biomass.

Carbon is the key life-giving element, but oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus are crucial too. Liquid water is another essential ingredient. Life also requires an energy source and a stable environment, which in our case are provided by the sun.

For life to evolve past the level of simple microbes, this life-encouraging setting has to remain benign for a very long time; it took billions of years for life on Earth to reach the point of intelligence.

On a larger scale, the universe must be sufficiently old and cool to permit complex chemistry. It has to be orderly enough to allow the untrammeled formation of galaxies and stars.

There have to be the right sorts of forces acting between particles of matter to make stable atoms, complex molecules, planets, and stars. If almost any of the basic features of the universe, from the properties of atoms to the distribution of the galaxies, were different, life would very probably be impossible.

It appeared to Hoyle as if a superintellect had been "monkeying" with the laws of physics. On the face of it, the universe does look as if it has been designed by an intelligent creator expressly for the purpose of spawning sentient beings.

Like the porridge in the tale of Goldilocks and the three bears, the universe seems to be "just right" for life, in many intriguing ways. No scientific explanation for the universe can be deemed complete unless it accounts for this appearance of judicious design.

Until recently, "the Goldilocks factor" was almost completely ignored by scientists. Now, that is changing fast. As I shall discuss in the following chapters, science is at last coming to grips with the enigma of why the universe is so uncannily fit for life.

The explanation entails understanding how the universe began and evolved into its present form and knowing what matter is made of and how it is shaped and structured by the different forces of nature.

Above all, it requires us to probe the very nature of physical laws. The Cosmic Code Throughout history, prominent thinkers have been convinced that the everyday world observed through our senses represents only the surface manifestation of a deeper hidden reality, where the answers to the great questions of existence should be sought.

So compelling has been this belief that entire societies have been shaped by it. Truth seekers have practiced complex rituals and rites, used drugs and meditation to enter trancelike states, and consulted shamans, mystics and priests in an attempt to lift the veil on a shadowy world that lies beneath the one we perceive.

The word occult originally meant "knowledge of concealed truth," and seeking a gateway to the occult domain has been a major preoccupation of all cultures, ranging from the Dreaming of Aboriginal Australians to the myth of Adam and Eve tasting the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge.

The advent of reasoned argument and logic did nothing to dispel the beguiling notion of a hidden reality. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato compared the world of appearances to a shadow playing on the wall of a cave. Followers of Pythagoras were convinced that numbers possess mystical significance.

The Bible is also replete with numerology, for example, the frequent appearances of 7 and 40, or the association of with Satan.

The power of numbers led to a belief that certain integers, geometrical shapes, and formulas could invoke contact with a supernatural plane and that obscure codes known only to initiates might unlock momentous cosmic secrets.

Attempts to gain useful information about the world through magic, mysticism, and secret mathematical codes mostly led nowhere. But about years ago, the greatest magician who ever lived finally stumbled on the key to the universe — a cosmic code that would open the floodgates of knowledge.

This was Isaac Newton — mystic, theologian, and alchemist — and in spite of his mystical leanings, he did more than anyone to change the age of magic into the age of science.

Newton, together with a small number of other scientific luminaries who included Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo Galilei, gave birth to the modern scientific age. The word science is derived from the Latin scientia, simply meaning "knowledge. The particular brand of "magic" employed by the early scientists involved hitherto unfamiliar and specialized procedures, such as manipulating mathematical symbols on pieces of paper and coaxing matter to behave in strange ways.

Today we take such practices for granted and call them scientific theory and experiment. No longer is the scientific method of inquiry regarded as a branch of magic, the obscure dabbling of a closed and privileged priesthood.

But familiarity breeds contempt, and these days the significance of the scientific process is often underappreciated. In particular, people show little surprise that science actually works and that we really are in possession of the key to the universe.

The ancients were right: beneath the surface complexity of nature lies a hidden subtext, written in a subtle mathematical code. This cosmic code4 contains the secret rules on which the universe runs. Newton, Galileo, and other early scientists treated their investigations as a religious quest.

They thought that by exposing the patterns woven into the processes of nature they truly were glimpsing the mind of God. Finding the key to the universe was by no means inevitable.

For a start, there is no logical reason why nature should have a mathematical subtext in the first place. And even if it does, there is no obvious reason why humans should be capable of comprehending it. You would never guess by looking at the physical world that beneath the surface hubbub of natural phenomena lies an abstract order, an order that can't be seen or heard or felt, but deduced.

Even the wisest mind couldn't tell merely from daily experience that the diverse physical systems making up the cosmos are linked, deep down, by a network of coded mathematical relationships. Yet science has uncovered the existence of this concealed mathematical domain.

We human beings have been made privy to the deepest workings of the universe. Other animals observe the same natural phenomena as we do, but alone among the creatures on this planet, Homo sapiens can also explain them.

How has this come about? Somehow the universe has engineered, not just its own awareness, but also its own comprehension. Mindless, blundering atoms have conspired to make not just life, not just mind, but understanding.

The evolving cosmos has spawned beings who are able not merely to watch the show, but to unravel the plot.

What is it that enables something as small and delicate and adapted to terrestrial life as the human brain to engage with the totality of the cosmos and the silent mathematical tune to which it dances?

For all we know, this is the first and only time anywhere in the universe that minds have glimpsed the cosmic code. If humans are snuffed out in the twinkling of a cosmic eye, it may never happen again.

The universe may endure for a trillion years, shrouded in total mystery, save for a fleeting pulse of enlightenment on one small planet around one average star in one unexceptional galaxy, Could it just be a fluke?

Might the fact that the deepest level of reality has connected to a quirky natural phenomenon we call "the human mind" represent nothing but a bizarre and temporary aberration in an absurd and pointless universe? Or is there an even deeper subplot at work? The Concept of Laws I may have given the impression that Newton belonged to a small sect that conjured science out of the blue as a result of mystical investigation.

This wasn't so. Their work did not take place in a cultural vacuum: it was the product of many ancient traditions. One of these was Greek philosophy, which encouraged the belief that the world could be explained by logic, reasoning, and mathematics.

Another was agriculture, from which people learned about order and chaos by observing the cycles and rhythms of nature, punctuated by sudden and unpredictable disasters. And then there were religions, especially monotheistic faiths, which encouraged belief in a created world order.

The founding assumption of science is that the physical universe is neither arbitrary nor absurd; it is not just a meaningless jumble of objects and phenomena haphazardly juxtaposed. Rather, there is a coherent scheme of things.

This is often expressed by the simple aphorism that there is order in nature. But scientists have gone beyond this vague notion to formulate a system of well-defined laws.

The existence of laws of nature is the starting point of this book, and indeed it is the starting point of science itself. But right at the outset we encounter an obvious and profound enigma: Where do the laws of nature come from?

As I have remarked, Galileo, Newton, and their contemporaries regarded the laws as thoughts in the mind of God, and their elegant mathematical form as a manifestation of God's rational plan for the universe.

Few scientists today would describe the laws of nature using such quaint language. Yet the questions remain of what these laws are and why they have the form that they do. If they aren't the product of divine providence, how can they be explained?

Historically, laws of nature were discussed by analogy to civil law, which arose as a means of regulating human society. Civil law is a concept that dates back to the time of the first settled communities, when some form of authority was needed to prevent social disorder.

Typically, a despotic leader would concoct a set of rules and exhort the populace to comply with them. Since one person's rules can be another person's problem, rulers would often appeal to divine authority to buttress their power.

A city's god might be literally a stone statue in the town square, and a priest would be appointed to interpret the god's commandments. The notion of turning to a higher, nonmaterial authority as justification for civil law underpins the Ten Commandments and was refined in the Jewish Torah.

Remnants of this notion survived into the modern era as the concept of the divine right of kings. Appeal was also made to an invisible higher power in support of laws of nature. In the fourth century BCE the Stoic philosopher Cleanthes described "Universal Nature, piloting all things according to Law.

Indeed, the word astronomy means "law of the stars. Thus the early Christian theologian Augustine of Hippo wrote that "the ordinary course of nature in the whole of creation has certain natural laws. Oxford University became the center for scholars who applied mathematical philosophy to the study of nature.

One of these so-called Oxford Calculators was Thomas Bradwardine — , later to become archbishop of Canterbury. Bradwardine has been credited with the first scientific work to announce a general mathematical law of physics in the modern sense.

Given this background, it is no surprise that when modern science emerged in Christian Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it was perfectly natural for the early scientists to believe that the laws they were discovering in the heavens and on Earth were the mathematical manifestations of God's ingenious handiwork.

The Special Status of the Laws of Physics Today, the laws of physics occupy the central position in science; indeed, they have assumed an almost deistic status themselves, often cited as the bedrock of physical reality. Let me give an everyday example. If you go to Pisa in Italy, you can see the famous leaning tower now restored to a safe inclination by engineering works.

Tradition says that Galileo dropped balls from the top of the tower to demonstrate how they fall under gravity. Whether or not this is true, he certainly did carry out some careful experiments with falling bodies, which is how he came to discover the following law.

If you drop a ball from the top of a tall building and measure how far it falls in one second, then repeat the experiment for two seconds, three seconds, and so on, you will find that the distance the ball travels increases as the square of the time.

The ball will fall four times as far in two seconds as in one, nine times as far in three seconds, and so on. Schoolchildren learn about this law as "a fact of nature" and normally move on without giving it much further thought.

But I want to stop right there and ask the question, Why? Why is there such a mathematical rule at work on falling bodies? Where does the rule come from?

And why that rule and not some other? Let me give another example of a law of physics, one that made a big impression on me in my school days. It concerns the way magnets lose their grip on each other with separation. Line them up side by side and measure the force as the distance between them increases.

You will find that the force diminishes with the cube of the distance, which is to say that if we double the distance between the magnets, the force falls to one eighth, treble it and the force will be one twenty-seventh, and so on.

Again, I am prompted to ask the question, Why? Some laws of physics bear the name of their discoverer, such as Boyle's law for gases, which tells you that if you double the volume of a fixed mass of gas while keeping the temperature constant, its pressure is halved.

Or Kepler's laws of planetary motion, one of which says that the square of the period of an orbit is proportional to the cube of the orbit's radius. Perhaps the best-known laws are Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, the latter supposedly inspired by an apple falling from a tree.

It states that the force of gravity diminishes with distance as the square of the separation between the two bodies. That is, the force that binds the Earth to the sun, and prevents it from flying off alone across the galaxy, would fall to only one quarter the strength if the Earth's orbit were twice as big.

This is known as an inverse square law. I have drawn a graph depicting it in Figure 1. The fact that the physical world conforms to mathematical laws led Galileo to make a famous remark.

And this language is mathematics. Theoretical physics entails writing down equations that capture or model, as scientists say the real world of experience in a mathematical world of numbers and algebraic formulas. Then, by manipulating the mathematical symbols, one can work out what will happen in the real world, without actually carrying out the observation.

That is, by applying the equations that express the laws relevant to the problem of interest, the theoretical physicist can predict the answer. For example, by using Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, engineers can figure out when a spacecraft launched from Earth will reach Mars.

They can also calculate the required mass of fuel, the most favorable orbit, and a host of other factors in advance of the mission. And it works! The mathematical model faithfully describes what actually happens in the real world.

Of course, in practice one may have to simplify the model to save time and cost of the analysis, making the predictions good only to a certain level of approximation, but that is not the fault of the laws. When I was at school I took a fancy to a young lady in my class named Lindsay.

I didn't see much of her because she was studying mainly the arts and I was studying the sciences and mathematics. But we did meet up in the school library from time to time. On one occasion I was busy doing a calculation.

I even remember what it was. If you throw a ball in the air at a certain speed and angle, Newton's laws let you work out how far it will travel before it hits the ground. The equations tell you that to achieve maximum range you should throw the ball at 45° to the horizontal.

If the ground on which you are standing slopes upward, however, the angle needs to be greater; by how much depends on the amount of slope.

I was deeply engrossed in calculating the maximum range up an inclined plane when Lindsay looked up and asked what I was doing. I explained.

She seemed puzzled and skeptical. At the time I dismissed her question as silly — after all, this was what we had been taught to do! But over the years I came to see that her impulsive response precisely captures one of the deepest mysteries of science: Why is nature shadowed by a mathematical reality?

Why does theoretical physics work? As scientists have probed deeper and deeper into the workings of nature, all sorts of laws have come to light that are not at all obvious from a casual inspection of the world, for example, laws that regulate the internal components of atoms or the structure of stars.

The multiplicity of laws raises another challenging question: How long would a complete list of laws be? Would it include ten? two hundred? Might the list even be infinitely long? Not all the laws are independent of one another. It wasn't long after Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Boyle began discovering laws of physics that scientists found links between them.

For example, Newton's laws of gravitation and motion explain Kepler's three laws of planetary motion and so are in some sense deeper and more powerful.

Newton's laws of motion also explain Boyle's law of gases when they are applied in a statistical way to a large collection of chaotically moving molecules. In the four centuries that have passed since the first laws of physics were discovered, more and more have come to light, but more and more links have been spotted too.

The laws of electricity, for example, were found to be connected to the laws of magnetism, which in turn explained the laws of light.

These interconnections led to a certain amount of confusion about which laws were "primary" and which could be derived from others. Physicists began talking about "fundamental" laws and "secondary" laws, with the implication that the latter were formulated for convenience only.

Sometimes physicists call these "effective laws" to distinguish them from the "true" underlying fundamental laws, within which, at least in principle, the effective, or secondary, laws can all be subsumed. In this respect, the laws of physics differ markedly from the laws of civil society, which are an untidy hodgepodge of statutes expanding without limit.

To take an extreme case, the tax laws in most countries run to millions of words of text. By comparison, the Great Rule Book of Nature at least as it is currently understood would fit comfortably onto a single page.

This streamlining and repackaging process — finding links between laws and reducing them to ever more fundamental laws — continues apace, and it's tempting to believe that, at rock bottom, there is just a handful of truly fundamental laws, possibly even a single superlaw, from which all the other laws derive.

Given that the laws of physics underpin the entire scientific enterprise, it is curious that very few scientists bother to ask what these laws actually mean. Moreover, it is thought that gene mutations within the Hox system can lead to large or abrupt changes in evolution, a direct contradiction of the slow and gradual changes predicted by Darwin's theory.

Darwin's theory must assume that this co-opting ability is completely explained by conditions of necessity, and this is only a leap of faith. This ability is every bit as mysterious as biogenesis, and it is continually occurring within evolution.

Advocates of the accidental universe are required to attempt refutation of their theories if their theories are to remain within science. As they are advocates they do this reluctantly. For intelligent design to remain within science these folks need only attempt eager refutation of the same hypothesis the accidental world , and no mention of a white-haired designer need be made.

This tension returns value to science. Davies page accuses intelligent design of equivocation, implying that the "intelligent design movement's propaganda is a failure to distinguish between the fact of evolution and the mechanism of evolution.

But intelligent design only provides Darwin's antithesis, and this eager involvement is necessary if Darwin's theory is going to stay within science.

Davies is more sympathetic with intelligent design as it relates to fine-tuning and a cosmology that is found bio-friendly. He page writes that "here the design arguments is largely immune to Darwinian attack. To describe life's feeling from conditions of mere necessity would seem to require a leap of faith, if not a miracle.

The so-called explanations of life built from conditions of necessity work just as good if life had no feelings at all. In the last half of Chapter 9, Davies looks at various conceptions of God, and questions "what is it that determines what exists?

I could have told him that myself, in different words. It is Aristotle's principle of excluded middle that is an unfounded leap of faith. And it is for this very reason that conditions of necessity are found insufficient to explain the feelings that life offers.

But the feelings are sense-certain and not demanding a reason based on conditions of necessity. The feelings source the middle term that had been excluded from reason.

What co-opts the past implies a necessary backward causation, a subtle form of teleology that Davies finds favor with in Chapter And in his concluding remarks Davies finds favor in a self-explaining universe, or a universe that holds a life principle. These are very agreeable choices again, in my view.

And my point all along has been that Darwinism is incomplete without Davies' life principle. Feeling is found escaping conditions of necessity by way of a life principle that points to Aristotle's forgotten middle-term.

And what is feeling at its deepest level but love? It has been the love of God that drove our evolution. But this is not a white-haired creator God that is held separate from his creation. This God affirms the Trinity, as only a Trinitarian logic can deal with a middle-term that cannot be excluded.

As I agree with Davies remarkable conclusions, despite our disagreements, his book wins five stars in my most critical opinion. Remember, our felt tension returns value to science. Disclosure: My agenda is declared in my profile. etched deeply into the cosmos. Paul Davies is a physicist and cosmologist whose web site cosmos.

edu also describes his interest in the field of astrobiology: "a new field of research that seeks to understand the origin and evolution of life, and to search for life beyond Earth. In Cosmic Jackpot, Davies expands on the "fine-tuning" argument for an intelligent origin of the universe by explaining the many phenomena of which we are aware that point to something more in the nature of "mind" than entirely blind, random processes.

If such ideas were proposed by a theologian with only a scant grasp of physics, they might easily be dismissed; Davies' credentials, however, require that his proposals be seriously considered.

Davies is not apparently religious or theistic; he says of the subject only that: "I do believe that life and mind are etched deeply into the fabric of the cosmos, perhaps through a shadowy, half-glimpsed life principle, and if I am to be honest I have to concede that this starting point is something I feel more in my heart than in my head.

So maybe that is a religious conviction of sorts. This conclusion carries a momentous implication. If the universe was bounded by a past singularity, then the big bang was not just the origin of space, but the origin of time too.

To repeat: time itself began with the big bang. Design-by-laws is incomparably more intelligent than design-by-miracles So the "intelligent design" beloved of the Intelligent Design movement strikes me as not very intelligent at all, in contrast to a designer of the laws of nature that by themselves have such astonishing creative ability without the need for intervention and miracles.

evolutionary principle of replication with variation and selection is undeniably fundamental second key is autonomy third distinctive property of living systems is how they handle information.

Now we are dealing with thoughts, purposes, feelings, beliefs - the inner, subjective world of the observer, who experiences reality through the senses.. These mental entities are clearly not merely "other sorts of things" - they are in a class apart.

They do not even exist on the same level of description as material objects and bear no obvious relationship to them whatsoever. He writes in a very accessible style and his objectivity is refreshing in a topic where ideas are so often presented with deep prejudice towards one extreme or the other.

An excellent book. One person found this helpful. Having read his scientific arguments in the rest of the book, I was somewhat surprised although he says his inclinations "will be clear" by the author's concluding section p.

Elsewhere p. Interestingly, he also writes p. The many and diverse components function together in a coherent and amazingly orchestrated manner", and that the living cell contains "exquisite examples of nanotechnology", and so forth.

To add to these conflicting observations, the author downgrades the Intelligent Design movement, an American defense of the idea that organisms have an intelligent designer. Perhaps he does so because he is British, since other Brits have that attitude, but what seems truly unfortunate is that the Intelligent Design group is the only one he denigrates with name-calling.

He speaks of their being "political" p. Not to be misunderstood, I love Americans and Brits equally I am of middle-European Jewish birth , but I consider the Intelligent Design group just as honorable and intelligent as others, though I hold, like other cases, its arguments deficient.

Presently, my concentration is on the author discussed, and I find numerous weaknesses in his argumentation. He puts special emphasis on the concept of explanation. To him every fact must be explained; otherwise it must be "taken on faith" p. He illustrates this on that page and the preceding one with humorous pictures in which the Earth is "explained by a deeper reality" of resting on an elephant, the elephant explained by resting on a turtle, which rests on another turtle, and, to "avoid infinite regress", last is "a levitating super-turtle, which is self-explaining and self-supporting".

The trouble is that the author is unclear about what he means by "explanation", by a "reason", and why some is always necessary.

There exist various "reasons". A most common one is giving a cause for an event. Another one is giving a proof for a logical or mathematical proposition. All these have the purpose of satisfying some desire for resulting knowledge. But much of knowledge is gained directly, without explanation, by for instance any immediate perception of something.

Laws pertaining to things are likewise often learned from experience, without need of further explanation, unless an underlying broader law might be helpful. The point is that once certain facts are learned, they become objects of knowledge, whether or not one learns more about them.

If accordingly the existence of God, considered as a "super-turtle", is the question, it is beside the point whether or not "God exists reasonlessly" p.

Returning to the first-mentioned last section p. He evidently means that, with the universe "a package of marvels", he takes "life [and] mind seriously" as resulting by some "purpose", saying, "It seems to me that there is a genuine scheme of things--the universe is 'about' something".

However, in Darwinian fashion he says, "I do not believe Homo sapiens to be more than an accidental by-product of haphazard natural processes".

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However, if you cheat and start reading back there first, you won't understand it. At the end of this Afterword, Davies indicates which two of the seven types of universes he thinks might have the best chance of being true; but I won't spoil the book for you by revealing these.

However, I will say that, not surprisingly, these two do not include the simplest, most straightforward one, since that one references a God, which is considered by Davies to be too "ad hoc".

In summary, let me emphasize that this book explains, in simple language, both scientifically and philosophically, the ways the universe can begin and remain in existence more comprehensively than any previous account I know of when it comes to multiple universes.

Although one might infer that his agnosticism leans more toward atheism, that does not affect his tremendous contributions. Davies continues to serve a vital function in being a critical watchdog, from the science side, of the most important, underlying issues in the field of Science and Religion.

Martin P. Fricke Del Mar, California May 7, 1. Paul Davies, "Reloading The Matrix", pp. Francis S. Collins, The Language of God, Free Press Div. See, for example, Brian Greene, The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality, Alfred A.

Davies' Agnosticism. The discipline of Science and Religion includes, as it must to be healthy, agnostics, atheists, deists, monotheists, and others of different philosophical or religious persuasion. However, it is only natural that atheists who deny the existence of a deity are not much interested in the subject of Science and Religion, whereas agnostics and those of any religious confession are usually very interested in what science might clarify for us about the mysteries of religious revelation.

As I've indicated, Davies' agnosticism, or even atheism, does not detract one iota from his extremely valuable contributions to Science and Religion.

He serves as a critical scientific watchdog for the most important scientific ideas impacting this field. I thank God for Davies' long-time interest in this field, of which he was a pioneer and founder.

Davies' broad knowledge shines in the "Cosmic Jackpot". He provides a very impartial survey of physics and cosmology, taking the reader through six chapters before getting to the heart of the issue: the Goldilocks enigma.

All theories are considered, but how does science account for the fine-tuning of constants that life depends on? Regarding the "dark energy density", Davies page writes the following.

This reduces the life-giving conditions to the "observer effect", we just happen to be in a lucky corner of the accidental universe. Davies page writes: "Cosmology is thereby transformed into an environmental science, in which a basic part of the explanation for what we observe in the universe depends on features of the local cosmic environment.

It is not like we can travel to the fall corners of the universe to sample these various locations, and some pockets may be beyond our ability to observe. Davies comes to the rescue by implying that there may be "indirect evidence" that can refute these theories.

This is a very unconvincing argument for the accidental universe that has not found a justification of its claims from first principles, while taking itself far from empirical science. Davies is too polite to say this, but he tries a different approach.

In the second half of Chapter 8, Davies goes from polite to the ridiculous. He treats multiverses of infinite size containing duplicated people, fake or computer simulated realities, artificial intelligence, fake physics, and fake gods, thereby completing the reductio ad absurdum.

Sadly, some scientists actually fall for these fantasies, and Davies is sly to use trickery to expose their unfounded affection for technology and the accidental universe.

The accidental universe cannot just be a love affair if it is going to remain science. In Chapter 9, Davies describes the intelligent design controversy, and he falls for the Darwinist propaganda that sees no value in intelligent design.

He refers to Richard Dawkins' arguments in "The Blind Watchmaker," forgetting that Dawkins' arguments have been refuted in various places. They have been refuted in my new book, "Trinity. Where is the gene s for feeling? Or do genes feel too?

Davies page admits "that living organisms are contraptions cobbled together from odds and ends as circumstances dictate.

But this tenancy for life to co-opt prior structures to bring new novelties into existence is extreme, leading to Behe's irreducible complexities. For example, genes also seemed to be cobbled together into Hox systems, where prior genes from distant ancestors have been co-opted for building entirely new structures.

We share the same genes, they are only organized differently. Darwin's theory did not predict this co-opting ability of life. Moreover, it is thought that gene mutations within the Hox system can lead to large or abrupt changes in evolution, a direct contradiction of the slow and gradual changes predicted by Darwin's theory.

Darwin's theory must assume that this co-opting ability is completely explained by conditions of necessity, and this is only a leap of faith. This ability is every bit as mysterious as biogenesis, and it is continually occurring within evolution.

Advocates of the accidental universe are required to attempt refutation of their theories if their theories are to remain within science. As they are advocates they do this reluctantly. For intelligent design to remain within science these folks need only attempt eager refutation of the same hypothesis the accidental world , and no mention of a white-haired designer need be made.

This tension returns value to science. Davies page accuses intelligent design of equivocation, implying that the "intelligent design movement's propaganda is a failure to distinguish between the fact of evolution and the mechanism of evolution.

But intelligent design only provides Darwin's antithesis, and this eager involvement is necessary if Darwin's theory is going to stay within science. Davies is more sympathetic with intelligent design as it relates to fine-tuning and a cosmology that is found bio-friendly. He page writes that "here the design arguments is largely immune to Darwinian attack.

To describe life's feeling from conditions of mere necessity would seem to require a leap of faith, if not a miracle. The so-called explanations of life built from conditions of necessity work just as good if life had no feelings at all.

In the last half of Chapter 9, Davies looks at various conceptions of God, and questions "what is it that determines what exists? I could have told him that myself, in different words.

It is Aristotle's principle of excluded middle that is an unfounded leap of faith. And it is for this very reason that conditions of necessity are found insufficient to explain the feelings that life offers. But the feelings are sense-certain and not demanding a reason based on conditions of necessity.

The feelings source the middle term that had been excluded from reason. What co-opts the past implies a necessary backward causation, a subtle form of teleology that Davies finds favor with in Chapter And in his concluding remarks Davies finds favor in a self-explaining universe, or a universe that holds a life principle.

These are very agreeable choices again, in my view. And my point all along has been that Darwinism is incomplete without Davies' life principle. Feeling is found escaping conditions of necessity by way of a life principle that points to Aristotle's forgotten middle-term.

And what is feeling at its deepest level but love? It has been the love of God that drove our evolution. But this is not a white-haired creator God that is held separate from his creation.

This God affirms the Trinity, as only a Trinitarian logic can deal with a middle-term that cannot be excluded. As I agree with Davies remarkable conclusions, despite our disagreements, his book wins five stars in my most critical opinion.

Remember, our felt tension returns value to science. Disclosure: My agenda is declared in my profile. etched deeply into the cosmos. Paul Davies is a physicist and cosmologist whose web site cosmos.

edu also describes his interest in the field of astrobiology: "a new field of research that seeks to understand the origin and evolution of life, and to search for life beyond Earth. In Cosmic Jackpot, Davies expands on the "fine-tuning" argument for an intelligent origin of the universe by explaining the many phenomena of which we are aware that point to something more in the nature of "mind" than entirely blind, random processes.

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A city's god might be literally Universe de Jackpot stone statue in the Universe de Jackpot square, and Univese priest would dr appointed Unuverse interpret the god's commandments. About the author Follow authors Jafkpot Universe de Jackpot new release updates, plus improved Pronósticos de carreras de galgos. Darwin's theory must assume that this Univerde ability Jaclpot completely Ujiverse by conditions of necessity, and this is only a leap of faith. Perhaps the best-known laws are Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, the latter supposedly inspired by an apple falling from a tree. The Bronze Jackpot is awarded every two hours to a random user who redeemed the respective ticket. These sorts of questions are not much affected by specific scientific discoveries: many of the really big questions have remained unchanged since the birth of civilization and still vex us today. Not to be misunderstood, I love Americans and Brits equally I am of middle-European Jewish birthbut I consider the Intelligent Design group just as honorable and intelligent as others, though I hold, like other cases, its arguments deficient.

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